2014-03-11

Coordination techniques in #BPM

In the context of BPM (see http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.fr/2014/01/definition-of-bpm-and-related-terms.html) I use the following definition of business processes. A business process is an explicitly-defined coordination for guiding the enactment of business activity flows.

Considering that there are different techniques to coordinate the work to be done (e.g. the discipline in the army and an agreement on positions in a football team of amateurs), this blogpost lists the several coordination techniques which are applicable in business processes.

This blogpost is the continuation of http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.fr/2012/07/coordination-techniques-in-bpm-social.html

flow-chat-based – a typical workflow which is the formal token logic (multiple tokens are possible) which controls the order of activities to be executed. Note: flow of control vs flow of data.

state-based – a typical state-machine which is the simplified formal token logic (only one token is possible which is located at a particular state); for example, a life-cycle diagram for an object type because each object instance can be only in one state.

event-based – as a simplified EPN (Event Processing Network) – see http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.fr/2011/01/explicit-event-processing-agents-in.htmll

role-based – use of a role-dependent function the further routing of tokens; e.g. distribution of load.

rule-based or decision-based or intelligence-based – use of a calculation-intensive function to guide the execution.

data-based – use of predominantly data in rule-based or decision-based techniques.

information-based – use of predominantly information in the intelligence-based technique.

knowledge-based – use of predominantly knowledge in the intelligence-based technique.

community-based or social intelligence or social knowledge – asking a community for an advice to guide the execution.

goal-based – a variant of the intelligence-based with the use of goal-dependent function to guide the execution, e.g. stop the process if its goal is reached (consider a shopping list or a check list). Milestone is a kind of goal.

instance-based – exchange of events between process instances, e.g. co-processes

inter-process – a simple variant of instance-based when the end of one process instance is the start of another process instance.

managerial – a variant of the knowledge-based with the use predominantly of tacit knowledge.

instinct-based – a variant of "very" tacit knowledge, e.g. flock of birds shows complex behaviour because all birds have the same "internal" program which interprets some signal between them.

inter-organisation – a variant of the inter-process when processes are in different organisations.

resource-based – the execution depends on the availability of a resources, e.g. a system of mass-servicing like a hair-dress shop. (also known as demand-supply balance)

decomposition cascade – a variant of goal-based in which something complex should be disassembled into smaller components in several steps (of a component is also complex that it should be decomposed as well), e.g. architecture of an IT system, cascade of secondary particles, lightening.



assembling cascade – as the opposite to the decomposition cascade, assembling something complex from smaller parts; e.g. building construction, implementation of an IT system/application. Typically, a Gantt diagram is used to manage the complexity of assembling cascade.


combined cascade – doing decomposition and assembling together as in agile development, by architecting some components and then implementing them as mini-cascades (in waterfall development, the decomposition cascade and assembling cascade for the whole system are clearly separated in time).

life-cycle-based - necessary to add as a "high-level" coordination - http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com/2013/11/practical-process-patterns-lifecycle-as.html 

Scheduling 3-tier from karl walter keirstead - see https://kwkeirstead.wordpress.com/2014/11/16/three-tier-scheduling-and-why-you-need-it-for-acmbpm/
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Thanks,
AS



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